This is a wander round the Tabula Peutingeriana, focusing on the section covering present-day France with the roads and towns of Aquitania – that is, the area surrounding the Traiectus of the Antonine Itinerary. The immediate impression is that there are huge inaccuracies in the location of known towns and cities, and the orientation needs constant adjustment.
The wide inlet resembling a river estuary is marked Sinus Aquitanicus – which is the Bay of Biscay. From the towns that we can identify, it looks as if the upper ‘jaw’ should be prised up 90 degrees and either stretched out east-west or squashed down north-south. Then the placing of some of the towns, at least, would make a bit more sense. Most notably, Pretorium Agrippe (Valkenburg) and Lugdunum (Leyden) in the Netherlands would then be over to the east rather than in north west ‘Brittany’. Portunamnetu (Nantes) would lie due south of Condate (Rennes), Fanomartis (Corseul) would be north west of Rennes, rather than just south of west, and Darioritum (Vannes) would move from south east of Rennes to, correctly, south west.
The lower ‘jaw’ cannot so easily be explained. As it stands, the map depicts Vesonna (Périgueux) as roughly west-north-west of Agen, whereas it ought to be almost due north; and Tolosa (Toulouse) is almost due west of Agen when it should be south-east. This leads one to examine why the road Aginnum-Excisum-Diolindum goes in an easterly direction and leads to Divona (Cahors) when, especially if one wanted to identify Diolindum with Lalinde, the road should go north and lead to Vesunna.
Again, there appear to be two rivers running east to west. Agen and Tolouse both lie on the Garonne, whereas Eysses and Cahors are on the Lot; yet all four towns are depicted in an east-west line on or close to the same river. Is the more northerly river the Dordogne? If so, Périgueux is lying on the southern bank, but Périgueux is not on the Dordogne at all, but further north on the river Isle.
Whether or not Traiectus is Diolindum at Lalinde/Pontours, as Dr Chaume thought¹ is not really relevant. Lalinde is roughly where the ‘traiectus’ was, by whatever other name the place was known. The name ‘Diolindum’ is merely a curiosity of Peutinger. But, in the search for truth: Did Aginnum-Excisum-Diolindum go north to Vesunna, as the Itinerary would have it (Peutinger, contradicting the Itinerary, has no road at all linking Agen with Périgueux); or did it go east to Cahors as Peutinger suggests? Answers on a postcard, please.The first case explains why some consider Lalinde, or the closely surrounding area, to be the site of Diolindum, the second why the towns of Duravel² or even Belvès³ are suggested.
For the record, my tossed coin falls in favour of Lalinde … It is hard to make a strong case based on Peutinger’s geography.
² Conjecture in ‘Les voies romaines en Gaule’, Revue archéologique, n.s. 4º year, vol 8, p 74. Duravel is a site rich in Roman archaeological remains. But one of many.